You Missed the Cut, Now What?

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April 10, 2019
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June 4, 2019

By: Bridget McDermott, CFP®

Back in 2015, 新的社会保障规则被签署成为法律,为大多数美国人堵住了两个非常有利可图的漏洞 & Suspend and (2) the Restricted Application.  The new law tied eligibility to birth dates, 这两种策略的使用仅限于老年人.  The actual cut-off dates are below:

如你所见,如果你出生在1954年1月2日或之后,你就不能提交申请 & suspend nor are you eligible to file a restricted application.  However, if you are married, or divorced after being married for more than ten years, 在申请退休福利时,仍然需要考虑一些策略.

As an individual, 一旦你积累了40“社会保障信用,你就有资格享受社会保障退休福利.“你每年最多可获得四个学分,每1360美元(2019年)的劳动收入可获得一个学分.  为了调整通货膨胀,你需要的每个信用额度的收入每年都在变化.  要获得2019年所有四个学分,你必须至少赚5440美元.  After ten years with income over the cap, you will have accumulated all 40 credits, achieving eligibility for social security retirement benefits.

When you apply for benefits, assuming you have earned all 40 credits, 社会保障局会调出你的收入记录,计算你35年收入最高的年份, indexed for inflation.  (如果你没有工作满35年,零将被用来计算平均值).  然后他们会用这个平均值来确定你的基本保险金额(PIA), 如果您选择在您的完全退休年龄(FRA)开始领取福利,您将获得的金额.

你可以早到62岁,晚到70岁申请退休福利.  However, if you begin benefits before your FRA, 你所获得的福利将根据你在联邦铁路局获得福利前的月数永久减少.  The opposite is true about delaying benefits.  For each year you delay benefits past your FRA, 你的福利将永久增加8%,直到你70岁.  For example, 如果你在66岁时达到联邦铁联标准,但你将福利推迟到70岁, you will receive 132% of your FRA benefit when you file.  你的法定退休年龄是基于你的出生年份,如下表所示.

If you are unmarried, and have never been married, 你将根据自己的收入记录申请福利(你的“退休福利”).  你可以推迟你的福利,以利用每年8%的增长, but there is not much strategy to consider past that.

However, if you are currently married, or are divorced after having been married for over 10 years, 根据你的配偶或前配偶的收入记录,你可能有资格领取福利(你的“配偶福利”).  If you apply for benefits based on your spouse’s record at your FRA, 您应获得配偶在联邦森林管理局可获得的福利的50%, no matter the age your spouse begins his/her benefits.  For example, if you are eligible to receive $1,根据您在联邦铁路局的收入记录,您的配偶有资格获得3美元,000 based on his/her record at his/her FRA, when you reach your FRA, you can apply for spousal benefits of $1,500, 50% of the $3,000 your spouse is eligible to receive at his/her FRA.

There is a caveat, though; in order to apply for Spousal Benefits, your spouse must already be receiving their Retirement Benefit.  如果你是在你的配偶开始他/她自己的福利之前申请你的福利, you will receive a benefit based on your own record.  If, at the time your spouse applies for his/her own benefit, 根据您配偶的记录(他/她的FRA金额的50%),您可以获得的福利比您目前获得的金额大, you will automatically be bumped up to the higher amount.  如果你开始提前领取福利金,然后再换成配偶福利, 你和你的配偶的福利都将减少,因为你在联邦铁路网之前就开始了你的福利.

After being stepped up to your spousal benefit, aside from annual cost of living increases, 你的福利很可能会一直持续到你的配偶去世.  At that time, 如果他们得到的利益大于你现在得到的利益, you will start receiving the amount they used to receive.  换句话说,你的福利金额将被他们的福利金额所取代,如果更大的话.

当拉菲娱乐平台为年龄太小而无法申报的客户进行社会保障分析时 & suspend or file a restricted application, 结果通常有利于丈夫将福利推迟到70岁,而妻子则从FRA开始享受福利.  当丈夫在婚姻中赚了更多的钱时,这种建议通常会发挥作用.

例如,乔和凯西(都出生于1960年)在2027年年满67岁时达到联邦森林管理局的规定.  Based on Cathy’s earnings record, she is eligible to receive $12,000 in retirement benefits if she files at her FRA.  Joe is eligible to receive $36,000 if he files at his FRA.  当凯茜67岁的时候,她将自己的收入记录归档,开始每年获得1.2万美元.  Joe decides to wait until he turns 70, 在这一点上,他的福利增加了24%(在联邦铁援法案生效后的三年里,每三年增加8%),达到44美元,640.  When Joe files, he will receive $44,每年640美元,凯茜将自动获得18美元的配偶福利,000, 50% of Joe’s FRA benefit, not the benefit Joe receives at age 70.  When Joe passes away, Cathy will again automatically be stepped up, this time to $44,640, the benefit Joe was receiving at his death.  The visual below shows this scenario:

That said, everyone’s situation is different.  有许多因素在社会保障福利申领策略中发挥作用.  我强烈建议你在选举前与社会保障管理部门或理财规划师讨论你的选择.  In our office, 拉菲娱乐平台进行社会保障优化分析,以帮助拉菲娱乐平台的客户选择最适合他们整体财务计划的策略.  You’ve been paying into the system for years; take the time to ensure you don’t leave your hard-earned money on the table.

Bridget McDermott, CFP® is a financial planner in Charlotte, NC. Click here to learn more about Bridget.

本文中所包含的内容不构成财务、法律、税收或其他建议. 本文所表达的观点和意见仅代表作者个人观点,并不代表卡罗莱纳投资咨询公司的官方政策或立场. 本网站所提供的资料仅供参考之用, and does not constitute an offer, 劝诱或建议出售或要约购买证券, investment products or investment advisory services. 所有资料、意见、意见及估计均可更改或更正,恕不另行通知. 投资或策略的恰当性取决于投资者的环境和目标. 这些观点可能不适合你的财务状况、风险和回报偏好. Past performance is not indicative of future returns.

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